Arabidopsis Research Roundup: February 20th

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Published on: February 19, 2017

This weeks Arabidopsis Research Roundup begins with two papers that look at endogenous and exogenous causes of cell proliferation. Firstly Mike Bevan (JIC) leads a team that looks into the role of controlled protein degradation in this process whilst secondly, Peter Etchells from Durham is a co-author on a study that investigates how nematode pathogens stimulate cell proliferation at the site of infection.

Thirdly is work featuring Cyril Zipfel and colleagues from TSL that looks at how autophosphorylation controls the activity of calcium dependent protein kinases. Fourthly is a broad collaboration led by Richard Mott (UCL) that uses genomic structural variation to identify novel loci. Next Simon Turner from the University of Manchester phylogenetically defines the RALK peptide lineages across plant species. Finally researchers at the University of York conduct a structural analysis of the Arabidopsis AtGSTF2 glutathione transferase.

Dong H, Dumenil J, Lu FH, Na L, Vanhaeren H, Naumann C, Klecker M, Prior R, Smith C, McKenzie N, Saalbach G, Chen L, Xia T, Gonzalez N, Seguela M, Inze D, Dissmeyer N, Li Y, Bevan MW (2017) Ubiquitylation activates a peptidase that promotes cleavage and destabilization of its activating E3 ligases and diverse growth regulatory proteins to limit cell proliferation in Arabidopsis.

Genes Dev. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1101/gad.292235.116

Open Access

Mike Bevan (John Innes Centre) is the corresponding author of this study that also includes researchers from labs in Belgium, Germany and China. They investigate a fundamental determinant of organ shape, the pattern of cell proliferation that leads to final cell size. They show that two RING E3 ligases activate the DA1 peptidase that in turn affects the stabilization and activity of a range of other proteins including the transcription factors TEOSINTE BRANCED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF 15 (TCP15) and TCP22. Overall this results in continued cell proliferation and repression of endoreduplication, which ultimately serves to regulate the timing of the transition from cell proliferation to organ differentiation.

Mike discusses the science surrounding this paper on the GARNet YouTube channel.

Guo X,, Wang J, Gardner M, Fukuda H, Kondo Y, Etchells JP, Wang X, Mitchum MG. Identification of cyst nematode B-type CLE peptides and modulation of the vascular stem cell pathway for feeding cell formation. PLoS Pathog. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006142

Open Access

Peter Etchells (University of Durham) is a co-author on this US-led study that looks at the effect of nematode-delivered CLE-like peptides on cell growth and how that impacts parasitism. This study has identified a new class of peptides from nematodes that are similar to the plant B-type CLE-like peptide TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor). They show that the nematodes alter the activity of the TDIF-TDR (TDIF receptor)-WOX4 signaling module during infection, whose endogenous function acts during procambial meristem cell proliferation. A variety of mutants involved in this process show reduced infection and leading to the hypothesis that WOX4 is a potential target for nematode CLEs. When exogenous nematode CLE peptides are added to Arabidopsis roots they cause massive cell proliferation. This demonstrates that this response is clearly important for the establishment of nematode infection, usually in cambial cell files.

Bender KW, Blackburn RK, Monaghan J, Derbyshire P, Menke FL, Zipfel C, Goshe MB, Zielinski RE, Huber SC (2017) Autophosphorylation-based calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity priming and Ca2+/Calmodulin inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+-dependent protein kinase 28 (CPK28) J Biol Chem.


Cyril Zipfel (The Sainsbury Lab) features for a second consecutive week on the Arabidopsis research roundup, this time as a co-author in a study that investigates the role of autophosphorylation in the regulation of calcium (Ca2+) dependent protein kinases (CPKs). In addition they evaluated the role of Calmodulin (CaM) on the activity of CPKs, something that had been previously overlooked. Indeed they show that CPK28 is a CaM-binding protein and that autophosphorylation causes increased activity, especially in low Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore this research provides a mechanistic insight into how a cell might respond to low levels of Ca2+.

Imprialou M, Kahles A, Steffen JG, Osborne EJ, Gan X, Lempe J, Bhomra A, Belfield E, Visscher A, Greenhalgh R, Harberd NP, Goram R, Hein J, Robert-Seilaniantz A, Jones J, Stegle O, Kover P, Tsiantis M, Nordborg M, Rätsch G, Clark RM, Mott R Genomic Rearrangements in Arabidopsis Considered as Quantitative Traits. Genetics. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1534/genetics.116.192823

Open Access

Richard Mott (UCL) is corresponding author on this paper includes authors from throughout the UK, Europe and the US. They provide a new analysis of Arabidopsis populations that relies on the genome structural variation. They treat these structural variants as quantitative traits and subsequently map genetically in the same way as in a gene expression study. When a structural variant locus is linked to a genotype at a distant locus then it is designated as a site of transposition. Remarkably they show 25% of the structural variants can be assigned to the transposition events. This method of assessing structural variant loci is amendable to sequencing at low-coverage and this study identified loci that might be involved in germination and resistant to pathogens. Overall they find that genes within structural variants are more likely to be silenced and that this novel analysis technique is particularly useful when mapping transposition events.

Campbell L, Turner SR1(2017) A Comprehensive Analysis of RALF Proteins in Green Plants Suggests There Are Two Distinct Functional Groups. Front Plant Sci. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00037

Open Access

This study from the lab of Simon Turner (University of Manchester) analyse Rapid Alkalinization Factor (RALFs) cysteine-rich peptides from across 51 plant species. They infer that these plant RALFs originate from four major clades in which the majority of the variation exists in the mature peptide sequence, indicative of clade-specific activities. Clade IV accounts for a third of the total peptides yet these lack a number of sequence features thought to be important for RALF function, which leads the authors to speculate that this clade should be thought of as containing RALF-related peptides instead of regular RALFs. Further experimental work is needed in order to define the true nature of the functional relationship between Clades I-III and Clade IV.

Ahmad L, Rylott EL, Bruce NC, Edwards R, Grogan G (2016) Structural evidence for Arabidopsis glutathione transferase AtGSTF2 functioning as a transporter of small organic ligands. FEBS Open Bio. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1002/2211-5463.12168

Open Access

This paper links plant science and structural biology in a study that was undertaken at the University of York. Plant Glutathione transferases (GSTs) have multiple roles including in the detoxification of xenobiotics as well as in various non-catalytic roles. In this work the structure of the Arabidopsis AtGSTF2 is revealed in tandem with a variety of non-catalytic partners including indole-3-aldehyde, camalexin, the flavonoid quercetrin and its non-rhamnosylated analogue quercetin. These are thought to bind to AtGSTF2 by hydrophobic interactions at either one or two symmetrical binding sites. The authors speculate that this non-catalytic binding might have a possible role in ligand transport.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: Feb 9th

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Published on: February 14, 2017

This weeks Arabidopsis Roundup again includes a broad selection of research topics. Firstly researchers at SLCU are involved in work that describes Arabidopsis sepal development. Secondly Cyril Zipfel from TSL leads a study that adds a layer of complexity to our knowledge of cellular pathogen perception. Thirdly the group of Reiner van der Hoorn from Oxford introduces the use of a novel set of inhibitors that reveals differential activity of proteosomal subunits during bacterial infection. Finally Hugh Pritchard from Kew Gardens is a co-author on a lipidomic study of the seed dessication-stress response.

Meyer HM, Teles J, Formosa-Jordan P, Refahi Y, San-Bento R, Ingram G, Jönsson H, Locke JC, Roeder AH (2017) Fluctuations of the transcription factor ATML1 generate the pattern of giant cells in the Arabidopsis sepal. Elife.


Open Access

James Locke and Henrik Jonsson (SLCU) are authors on this paper that is led by Adrienne Roeder at Cornell in the USA. The Roeder lab largely focused their research on development of the sepal. The SLCU researchers provided modeling support for this investigation into the critical role of the ATML1 gene in the differentiation of initially identical cells into giant or regular sized sepal cells. They show that there it is a threshold level of differential ATML1 expression that is key in determining cell fate. If this threshold is met during the G2 phase of the cell cycle the cells enter endoreduplication and become giant. If the threshold isn’t reached then the cells divide and remain at a ‘normal’ size. Ultimately they demonstrate a fluctuation-driven patterning mechanism that determines cell fate.

Stegmann M, Monaghan J, Smakowska-Luzan E, Rovenich H, Lehner A, Holton N, Belkhadir Y, Zipfel C (2017) The receptor kinase FER is a RALF-regulated scaffold controlling plant immune signaling Science


Cyril Zipfel (The Sainsbury Lab, Norwich) is the lead author of this study that builds upon his labs work into mechanisms of pathogen perception by cell-surface receptor kinases. In this latest work they show that the SITE-1 PROTEASE (ST1P) cleaves endogenous RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) propeptides to inhibit plant immunity, a response mediated via the receptor kinase FERONIA (FER). The FER protein is also involved in the formation of other immune complexes. The authors have discovered a mechanism by which FER reglates RALK signaling, indicating that they might have uncovered a more general mechanism for this key control point of immune signaling.

Misas-Villamil JC,, van der Burgh AM, Grosse-Holz F, Bach-Pages M, Kovács J,, Kaschani F, Schilasky S, Emon AE, Ruben M, Kaiser M, Overkleeft HS, van der Hoorn RA (2017) Subunit-selective proteasome activity profiling uncovers uncoupled proteasome subunit activities during bacterial infections. Plant Journal


Reiner van der Hoorn (University of Oxford) lead this cross-Europe collaboration that introduces a range of inhibitors and probes that can discriminate between catalytic subunits of the proteasome. These tools were studied in both Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana and the authors used the plant-microbe interactions to further validate their specificity. They show that proteasomal subunits have separate paralogs that are differentiatially incorperated into the larger complex depending on an interaction with pathogenic bacteria. Aliquots of these probes are available on request from

The authors encourage their usage so as to increase the chance that they might become commercially available. More information from the Plant Chemetics lab.

Chen H, Yu X, Zhang X, Yang L, Huang X, Zhang J, Pritchard HW, Li W (2017) Phospholipase Dα1-mediated phosphatidic acid change is a key determinant of desiccation-induced viability loss in seeds. Plant Cell Environ.


Hugh Pritchard (Kew Gardens) is a co-author on this Chinese-led study that investigates the role of phosphatidic acid (PA) on seed viability. Higher levels of PA correlated with lower seed viability after a desiccation stress. Using Arabidopsis seeds they showed that the enzyme phospholipase D α1 (PLD α1) localises to the plasma membrane following desiccation, where it produces PA. When PLD α1 was suppressed, seed recovery following desiccation improved. The authors used comparative lipidomics to compare PA levels in eight plant species and from their Arabidopsis work, they propose a new model for the mechanism by which seed desiccation effects germination rates.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: January 17th

Todays Arabidopsis Research Roundup includes some excellent examples of UK labs engaged in collaborative work with researchers from around the globe. However first up is a study solely from the John Innes Centre, led by Vinod Kumar, that investigates the role of PIF4 during the thermosensory response. Secondly David Evans (Oxford Brookes University) is a co-author on a French-led study that has looked into the role of LINC complexes during interphase heterochromatin patterning. Thirdly is the description of the new PhenoTiki imaging tool that has come from the lab of Sotirios Tsaftaris in Edinburgh. Work from Paul Dupree (University of Cambridge) features in the ARR for the second consecutive week, this time with a study looking at the sugar composition of seed mucilage. The penultimate study is from the lab of Renier van der Hoorn (Oxford University) who investigates the role of Cys proteases during senescence and finally is a study from Seth Davis (University of York) that looks at the link between the circadian clock and the plants energy sensing mechanisms.

Gangappa SN, Berriri S, Kumar SV (2016) PIF4 Coordinates Thermosensory Growth and Immunity in Arabidopsis. Current Biology


Open Access
Vinod Kumar (John Innes Centre) leads this study that looks at the role of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) transcription factor during the thermosensory response and its effect on plant architecture. They looked at the natural variation of PIF4, demonstrating the role of different varients on the balance between growth and immunity to pathogens. Pertubing PIF4-mediated effects result in temperature-resilient disease resistance. This study links with a paper highlighted in last weeks ARR from Kerry Franklin and co-authors that presented the role of UVR8 on the control of PIF4 heat responsive effects. These studies further confirm the important role of PIF4 in plant development in response to environmental change and biotic challenges.

Vinod discusses this paper and a related manuscript from next weeks ARR. Also available on the GARNet YouTube channel.

Poulet A, Duc C, Voisin M, Desset S, Tutois S, Vanrobays E, Benoit M, Evans DE, Probst AV, Tatout C (2017) The LINC complex contributes to heterochromatin organisation and transcriptional gene silencing in plants. J Cell Science.


Open Access

This study is led by Christophe Tatout from Clermond-Ferrand and includes David Evans and Axel Poulet (Oxford Brookes University) as co-authors. The paper focuses on the role of the nuclear envelope-localised LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex on nuclear morphology and interphase chromatin localisation. This work is underpinned by the use of novel 3D imaging tools to define where in the nucleus the chromatin is localised in both wildtype and linc mutant plants. This allows the authors to show that the LINC complex is necessary for proper heterchromatin organisation at the nuclear periphery, which might have broad implications for gene expression and transcriptional silencing.

Minervini M, Giuffrida MV, Perata P, Tsaftaris SA (2017) Phenotiki: An open software and hardware platform for affordable and easy image-based phenotyping of rosette-shaped plants. Plant J. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1111/tpj.13472

Open Access
This manuscript describes the PhenoTiki tool that is designed for the automated phenotyping of Arabidopsis rosettes, work which is led by Sofortios Tsaftaris (University of Edinburgh). PhenoTiki describes both the imaging software and also cheap-to-use off-the-shelf hardware that allows for facile imaging at reduced costs. The proof-of-concept study in the paper shows a comprehensive analysis from a range of parameters in 24 Arabidopsis rosettes from different genotypes. This data is compared favourably to more expensive methods of automated phenotyping so the authors hope PhenoTiki can be adopted as a low-cost method for image analysis. Full details can be found at

Saez-Aguayo S, Rautengarten C, Temple H, Sanhueza D, Ejsmentewicz T, Sandoval-Ibañez O, Doñas-Cofré DA, Parra-Rojas JP, Ebert B, Lehner A, Mollet JC, Dupree P, Scheller HV, Heazlewood JL, Reyes FC, Orellana A (2016) UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter that Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage. Plant Cell. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1105/tpc.16.00465

Open Access
Paul Dupree (University of Cambridge) is part of this global collaboration with colleagues from Australia, USA and Chile. The study investigates the intracellular movement of the plant cell polysaccharide pre-cursor UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA). To identify genes involved in this process they cleverly screened mutants for alteration in seed mucilage, which has high level of other polysaccharides. This strategy identified UUAT1, which is a golgi-localised transporter of UDP-GlcA and UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA). Uuat1 mutants have altered sugar composition in both the seed coat mucilage and in other plant organs. These changes were also associated with an increase, by a currently unknown mechanism, of homogalacturonan methylation. Overall the authors show that UUAT1 is important for the correct distribution of cell wall polysaccahrides throughout growing embryo and will surely play important developmental roles in the function of the cell wall.

Pružinská A, Shindo T, Niessen S, Kaschani F, Tóth R, Millar AH, van der Hoorn RA (2017) Major Cys protease activities are not essential for senescence in individually darkened Arabidopsis leaves. BMC Plant Biol.


Open Access

In this paper Renier van der Hoorn (University of Oxford) interacts with US, German and Australian colleagues to use the activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) technique to assess the activity of active enzymes during senescence. They show that in Arabidopsis leaves the expression of several Papain-like Cys Proteases (PLCPs) is elevated but the activity of many Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VPEs) is decreased, even though their transcript level increases. The amount of senescence was assessed in plants with mutations in different members of these protease families and surprisingly did not find any difference when compared to wildtype plants. One exception was in plants containing a mutation in the AALP PLCP which showed a significant, albeit slight, descrease in the rate of senescence.

Shin J, Sánchez-Villarreal A,, Davis AM,, Du SX, Berendzen KW, Koncz C, Ding Z, Li C, Davis SJ (2017) The metabolic sensor AKIN10 modulates the Arabidopsis circadian clock in a light-dependent manner. Plant Cell Environ.

<a href="" onclick="_gaq.push(['_trackEvent', 'outbound-article', 'http://onlinelibrary.wiley generic cialis’, ‘http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1111/pce.12903’]);” target=”_blank”>http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/10.1111/pce.12903

Seth Davies (University of York) leads this study that includes German, Mexican and Chinese collaborators and looks at the link between the circadian clock and plant metabolism. The energy sensing Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) complex contains the catalytic AKIN10 protein, which plays an important role in clock function by controlling expression of the key evening element GIGANTEA (GI). This AKIN10 effect requires the clock regulator TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC) demonstrating an important role for the plants energy sensing mechanisms, via the AKIN10, in conditional control of clock gene expression.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: August 19th

This weeks Arabidopsis Research Roundup includes broad representation from Norwich Research Park with Caroline Dean, Enrico Coen and Cyril Zipfel each leading studies that focus respectively on the regulation of transcriptional state, auxin patterning that defines leaf shape or the molecular basis of the PAMP response.

Elsewhere Liam Dolan (Oxford) leads, and Malcolm Bennett (CPIB) is the principal UK contributor on studies that look into different aspects of the key molecular signals in either root hair or lateral root development.

Finally Richard Napier is a co-author on a study that better characterises the molecular basis of the well-used plant growth inhibitor MDCA.

Yang H, Howard M, Dean C (2016) Physical coupling of activation and derepression activities to maintain an active transcriptional state at FLC PNAS

Dame Caroline Dean and Martin Howard (JIC) lead this follow-on work from a paper highlighted in an ARR from the start of 2016. Here they use the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) locus as a model to study the trans factors that control methylation state. They find a physical interaction between the H3K36 methyltransferase SDG8 (which promotes the active H3K36me3 mark) and the H3K27me3 demethylase ELF6 (which removes the silencing H3K27me3 mark). SDG8 also associated with RNA polymerase II and the PAF1 transcriptional regulatory complex. Therefore the authors suggest that the addition of active histone marks coincides with transcription at the locus whilst SDG8 and ELF6 exhibit co-dependent localisation to FLC chromatin. Therefore this interaction links activation and derepression and coordinates active transcription whilst preventing ectopic silencing.

Abley K, Sauret-Güeto S, Marée AF, Coen E (2016) Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths. Elife.

Open Access
Enrico Coen (JIC) is the corresponding author on this investigation that had generated models that predict locations of leaf outgrowth linked to auxin biosynthesis and transport. They use live imaging in wildtype and kanadi1kanadi2 mutants to show that the cellular polarity of the PIN1 auxin transporter is orientated so as to move auxin away from regions with high levels of biosynthesis. In turn, this moves auxin toward regions with high expression of AUX/LAX auxin importers. This data allows the generation of detailed models that describe the processes that control auxin-mediated tissue-patterning (and are impossible to describe in a single paragraph).

Couto D, Niebergall R, Liang X, Bücherl CA, Sklenar J, Macho AP, Ntoukakis V, Derbyshire P, Altenbach D, Maclean D, Robatzek S, Uhrig J, Menke F, Zhou JM, Zipfel C (2016) The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1 PLoS Pathog.

Open Access

Cyril Zipfel is the lead investigator on this study that links researchers at TSL with colleagues in China and Germany. The focus of this work is the cytoplasmic kinase BIK1, which is a target of several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are involved in the defence response, and the novel protein phosphatase PP2C38, which acts as a negative regulator of BIK1. Under non-inductive conditions PP2C38 prevents BIK1 activity but following pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) perception, it is phosphorylated and dissociates from BIK1, allowing full activity. This study provides another layer of detail into the complex central immune response that allows plants to response to a vast array of pathogenic microorganisms.

Goh T, Toyokura K, Wells DM, Swarup K, Yamamoto M, Mimura T, Weijers D, Fukaki H, Laplaze L, Bennett MJ, Guyomarc’h S (2016) Quiescent center initiation in the Arabidopsis lateral root primordia is dependent on the SCARECROW transcription factor Development.

Open Access

Malcolm Bennett and Darren Wells (CPIB) are authors on this international collaboration that links UK, Japanese, French and Dutch researchers. The essential role of the central organizer center (the quiescent center, QC) is well known in primary root meristem development but its role during lateral root (LR) formation remained unclear. LR formation is characterised by biphasic growth that involves early morphogenesis from the central stele and subsequent LR meristem formation. This study uses 3D imaging to demonstrate that LR QC cells originate from outer cell layers of early primordial, in a SCARECROW (SCR) dependent manner. Perturbing SCR function causes incorrect formation of the LR QC and prevents wildtype LR patterning. The manuscript also contains some excellent videos of growing LRs that are very informative.
AUX1-YFPKim CM, Dolan L (2016) ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon PLoS Genet. Open Access

This study comes from Liam Dolan’s lab at the University of Oxford and moves their research focus on root hair development from Arabidopsis into the grass Brachypodium distachyon. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix genes are expressed in cells that develop root hair fate in Arabidopsis and this study indentifies 3 RSl1 genes in Brachypodium which, when ecoptically expressed, are sufficient for the development of root hairs in all cell files. The function of these RSL proteins is conserved as the Brachypodium versions are able to restore a wildtype phenotype to root hair-less Arabidopsis mutants. Even though root hair patterning is significantly different in Brachypodium and Arabidopsis, this study shows the role of the RSL genes is conserved.
Steenackers WJ, Cesarino I, Klíma P, Quareshy M, Vanholme R, Corneillie S, Kumpf RP, Van de Wouwer D, Ljung K, Goeminne G, Novak O, Zažímalová E, Napier RM, Boerjan WA, Vanholme B (2016) The allelochemical MDCA inhibits lignification and affects auxin homeostasis. Plant Physiology

Open Access

Richard Napier (Warwick) is the UK PI on this pan-European study that investigates the molecular basis behind the physiological role of the compound phenylpropanoid 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA), which inhibits the phenylpropanoid pathway, important in lignin formation. MDCA causes inhibition of primary root growth and increase proliferation of lateral roots, not through lignin perturbation but due to a disruption in auxin homeostasis. MS analysis demonstrates that MDCA causes overall changes in auxin biosynthesis, conjugation and catabolism, similar to changes observed in mutants involved in the phenylpropanoid pathways. These result link auxin and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways and provide a new explanation for the well demonstrated phytotoxic properties of MDCA.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: March 4th

There are six articles in this weeks Arabidopsis Research Roundup that bridge a diverse range of topics. Firstly lead author Deirdre McLachlan provides an audio description of a study that investigates the role of triacylglycerol breakdown in stomatal signaling. Secondly is a study that assesses the role of a Rab GTPase in control of anisotropic cell growth. The third and fourth papers looks into the defence response, focused on either JA or nitric oxide signaling. Finally are two papers that look into the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to growth on either arsenic or cadmium.

McLachlan DH, Lan J, Geilfus CM, Dodd AN, Larson T, Baker A, Hõrak H, Kollist H, He Z, Graham I, Mickelbart MV, Hetherington AM The Breakdown of Stored Triacylglycerols Is Required during Light-Induced Stomatal Opening Current Biology Open Access
Slide 1
The control of stomatal opening is a key environmental response to changes in CO2 levels and water availability. This study, led by Alistair Hetherington (Bristol), demonstrates that triacylglycerols (TAGs), contained in lipid droplets (LD), are critical for light-induced stomatal opening. Following illumination, the number of LDs are reduced through the β-oxidation pathway, a response that requires blue-light receptors. The authors postulate that a reduction in ATP-availability due to delayed fatty acid breakdown contributed to the stomatal phenotype. The lack of available ATP was confirmed following analysis of the activity of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Overall the authors suggest that the light-induced breakdown of TAG contributes to an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls stomatal opening therefore playing a key role in environmental adaptation.

The lead author of this study, Deidre McLachlan kindly provides a brief audio description of this paper.

During our discussion Deidre mentioned some related work that links blue-light signaling and starch degradation during stomatal opening that was included in a recent ARR.


Kirchhelle C, Chow CM, Foucart C, Neto H, Stierhof YD, Kalde M, Walton C, Fricker M, Smith RS, Jérusalem A, Irani N, Moore I (2016) The Specification of Geometric Edges by a Plant Rab GTPase Is an Essential Cell-Patterning Principle During Organogenesis in Arabidopsis. Developmental Cell 36(4):386-400 Open Access
Ian Moore (Oxford) is the corresponding author on this UK-German collaboration that investigates the role of a Rab GTPase in pattern formation during organogenesis. It is known that the endomembrane system controls the asymmetric distribution of cargoes to different ‘geometric edges’ of a plant cell, establishing biochemically distinct domains that are important for anisotropic growth. This study identifies a new type of membrane vesicle that accumulates specifically along geometric edges and that contains the RAB-A5c protein which, when inhibited, distorts the geometry of cells in subsequently formed lateral organs (in this case, lateral roots). Interestingly this effect is independent of changes to general endomembrane trafficking. The precise mechanism of RAB-A5c activity is unknown but loss of its activity reduces cell wall stiffness at domain-specific locations, therefore perturbing cell growth in those directions. Therefore this study provides interesting insight into fundamental mechanisms that control the growth of cells in a developing organ.

Thatcher LF, Cevik V, Grant M, Zhai B, Jones JD, Manners JM, Kazan K (2016) Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum J Exp Bot. Open Access

Jonathan Jones (TSL) and Murray Grant (Exeter) are collaborators on this research that investigates the role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In this study they show that the JASMONATE ZIM-domain7 (JAZ7) gene is induced by Fusarium oxysporum and that the jaz7-1D mutant has increased suspectibility to infection. This genotype has constitutive JAZ7 expression and also demonstrates sensitivity to a bacterial pathogen. To cause alterations in gene expression, the JAZ7 protein interacts with a range of transcriptional activators and repressors. The authors postulate that in wildtype plants JAZ7 represses the JA-transcriptional network through its interaction with the co-repressor TOPLESS protein and that in the jaz7-1D plants this response network is hyper-activated leading to an inappropriately high response to pathogen attack.

Yun BW, Skelly MJ, Yin M, Yu M, Mun BG, Lee SU, Hussain A, Spoel SH, Loake GJ (2016) Nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione function additively during plant immunity. New Phytol.

Gary Loake and GARNet Advisory board member Steven Spoel (Edinburgh) are the leaders of this UK-Korean collaboration that studies the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in the plant defence response. NO often undergoes S-nitrosylation to produce S-nitrosothiol (SNO), which is important for its bioactivity. This reaction involves the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase 1 (GSNOR1) enzyme, which serves to turnover the NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). In this study the authors investigate mutant plants that accumulate NO and some a reduction in the basal defence response due to a reduction in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. This response was not rescued by the overexpression of GSNOR1 even though this was able to reduce phenotypes resulting from SNO accumulation. Mutant plants that have increased NO accumulation but lower activity of GSNOR1, so therefore an increased ratio of NO:SNO, were more suspectible to growth of bacterial pathogens. The authors conclude that the relationship between NO and GSNO is critically for plant immunity and development.

Lindsay ER, Maathuis FJ (2016) Arabidopsis thaliana NIP7;1 is Involved in Tissue Arsenic Distribution and Tolerance in Response to Arsenate FEBS Lett.

Francois Maathuis (York) is the corresponding author of this study that investigates the role of the Arabidopsis aquaglyceroporin NIP7;1 in the uptake of different chemical forms of arsenic. Mutant nip7;1 plants improved the tolerance of arsenic by reducing uptake of the chemical. This is the first demonstration for the role of a NIP transporter in the response to arsenic and highlights the possibility of focussing on these proteins as a target for breeding or genetically-modifying tolerance to this toxic metal.

Wang H, He L, Song J, Cui W, Zhang Y, Jia C, Francis D, Rogers HJ, Sun L, Tai P, Hui X, Yang Y, Liu W (2016) Cadmium-induced genomic instability in Arabidopsis: Molecular toxicological biomarkers for early diagnosis of cadmium stress Chemosphere 150:258-265

Hilary Rodgers (Cardiff) is the sole UK representative on this Chinese study that has developed screening parameters to evaluate the growth of plants on cadmium. The study uses microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR (MSAP-PCR) to define a range of genomic alterations that occurred after growth of Arabidopsis plants across a range of concentrations of cadmium. They conclude that analysis of genomic methylation polymorphisms were the most sensitive biomarkers to diagnosis early cadmium stress in these plants and provide important insights for future biomonitoring strategies.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: November 13th.

This weeks Arabidopsis Research Roundup presents a wide range of topics from researchers across the UK. Firstly we highlight a study that documents the early stages of a potential biotechnological/synthetic biology approach to improve higher plant photosynthesis using algal components. Corresponding author Alistair McCormick also takes five minutes to discuss this work. Secondly a team based mostly at Bath introduces the function of the PAT14 gene, which is involved in S-palmitoylation. Thirdly is a study that successfully transfers SI components between evolutionary diverged plant species and the final paper documents research that adds additional complexity to the signalling pathway that responses to strigolactones.

Atkinson N, Feike D, Mackinder LC, Meyer MT, Griffiths H, Jonikas MC, Smith AM, McCormick AJ (2015) Introducing an algal carbon-concentrating mechanism into higher plants: location and incorporation of key components. Plant Biotechnol J. Open Access

This work results from a collaborative effort between the four groups that make up the Combining Algal and Plant Photosynthesis (CAPP) consortium and include Howard Griffiths (Cambridge), Martin Jonikas (Carnegie Institute for Science), Alison Smith (JIC) and Alistair McCormick (Edinburgh). Here they attempt to express in higher plants a range of algal proteins that are involved in carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCM). They initially confirmed the intracellular locations of ten algal CCM components and showed that these locations were largely conserved when the proteins were expressed transiently in tobacco or stably in Arabidopsis. Although the expression of these CCMs components in Arabidopsis didn’t enhance growth, the authors suggest that stacking of multiple CCM proteins might be needed to confer an increase in productivity.

Alistair takes five minutes to discuss this paper here:

Li Y, Scott RJ, Doughty J, Grant M, Qi B (2015) Protein S-acyltransferase 14: a specific role for palmitoylation in leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology Open Access

This Southwest-based study is led by Baoxiu Qi from the Plant-Lab at Bath University with input from Murray Grant (Exeter). They investigate Protein S-Acyl Transferase (PATs) protein, which are multi-pass transmembrane proteins that catalyze S-acylation (commonly known as S-palmitoylation). This process both confers correct protein localisation and is involved in signalling. These are 24 PATs in Arabidopsis and this study focuses on the novel PAT14, which they show has its predicted enzymatic role. Pat14 mutant plants show accelerated senescence that is associated with SA, but not JA or ABA-signaling. Therefore the authors suggest that AtPAT14 plays a pivotal role in regulating senescence via SA pathways and that this is the first published linkage between palmitoylation and leaf senescence.

Lin Z1, Eaves DJ1, Sanchez-Moran E1, Franklin FC1, Franklin-Tong VE1 (2015) The Papaver rhoeas S determinants confer self-incompatibility to Arabidopsis thaliana in planta Science 350(6261):684-7 http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/​10.1126/science.aad2983

University of Birmingham researchers led by Noni Franklin- Tong publish this study in Science in which they transfer the elements that confer self-incompatibility (SI) in Papever rhoeas (Poppy) to Arabidopsis. They find that Arabidopsis pistils that express the self-determinant PrsS protein reject pollen that expresses the PrpS protein. This leads to a robust SI response in these plants, demonstrating that these two components are sufficient for the establishment of this interaction. Poppy and Arabidopsis are evolutionarily separated by 140million years so the authors suggest that the successful transfer of SI determinants between these divergent species will have potential utility in future crop production strategies.

Soundappan I, Bennett T, Morffy N, Liang Y, Stanga JP, Abbas A, Leyser O, Nelson DC (2015) SMAX1-LIKE/D53 Family Members Enable Distinct MAX2-Dependent Responses to Strigolactones and Karrikins in Arabidopsis The Plant Cell

Ottoline Leyser (SLCU) is the UK lead on this US-UK collaboration that investigates the plant response to butenolide signals, namely the plant hormone strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins. It is known that these molecules are perceived by the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) and that the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) protein acts downstream of this perception. This study documents an extensive genetic study that shows that the activity of the SMAX1-LIKE genes, SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8 promote shoot branching. smxl6,7,8 mutant plants suppress several strigolactone-related phenotypes in max2, that focus on the response to auxin but not on germination or hypocotyl elongation responses, which are only suppressed in smax1 mutants. On a molecular level these responses are controlled by the MAX2-dependant degradation of the SMAX1/SMXL proteins, which result in changes in gene expression. Therefore this shows that the diversity of SMAX1/SMXL proteins allows the signaling pathway that responses to butenolide signals to bifurcate downstream of the initial perception.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: Sept 11th

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Published on: September 11, 2015

After a slow couple of weeks the Arabidopsis Research Roundup returns with some publications in high profile journals. None more so than the widely reported study from the University of York that highlights Arabidopsis plants which are able to grow on TNT-contaminated soils. Three other broadly cell biology-based studies from the JIC, Cardiff and Nottingham look at cell wall composition, vascular patterning and polyadenylation respectively. Finally a study from the James Hutton Institute presents an improved tool for identification of DNA-binding proteins in plants.

Johnston EJ, Rylott EL, Beynon E, Lorenz A, Chechik V, Bruce NC (2015) Monodehydroascorbate reductase mediates TNT toxicity in plants Science. 349 1072-1075

The most highly reported manuscript of this week comes from Neil Bruce’s group at the University of York. This publication in Science discusses the use of plants in the removal of historic pollution from TNT-based explosions. TNT phytotoxicity results from the creation of a reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria, a reaction catalyzed by monodehydroascorbate reductase6 (MDHAR6). The authors show that an Arabidopsis mdhar6 mutant is tolerance to TNT with no significant reduction in biomass. This discovery may very well contribute toward the remediation of contaminated sites with plants. This paper has been also reported widely in the general media including at Wired or Reuters.

Seguela-Arnaud M, Smith C, Uribe MC, May S, Fischl H, McKenzie N, Bevan MW (2015) The Mediator complex subunits MED25/PFT1 and MED8 are required for transcriptional responses to changes in cell wall arabinose composition and glucose treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 5;15(1):215

Mike Bevan at the JIC leads this work, which also includes GARNet board member Sean May that investigates the control of cell wall deposition. The Arabidopsis hsr8-1 mutant has an arabinose deficiency that prevents correct hypocotyl elongation due to a cell wall defect. This mutant is rescued by mutations in the Mediator transcription complex indicating that they have some specificity for genes involved in cell wall composition. This suppression alters gene expression is several glucose-induced genes, including cell wall enzymes and those involved in flavonoid and glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways.

Randall RS, Miyashima S, Blomster T, Zhang J, Elo A, Karlberg A, Immanen J, Nieminen K, Lee JY, Kakimoto T, Blajecka K, Melnyk CW, Alcasabas A, Forzani C, Matsumoto-Kitano M, Mähönen AP, Bhalerao R, Dewitte W, Helariutta Y, Murray JA

AINTEGUMENTA and the D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 regulate root secondary growth and respond to cytokinins Biol Open. bio.013128.

The aim of this multi-national collaboration led by GARNet PI Jim Murray (Cardiff)  and Yrjo Helariutta (SLCU) was to reset some established dogma which held that the AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) was epistatic to the D-type cycling CYCD3;1 in the control of vascular patterning. However this study shows that in the vascular cambium of Arabidipsis roots both genes respond to cytokinin and are required for proper root thickening. In addition this mechanism is maintained in the roots of poplar, suggesting a common regulatory mechanism.

Kappel C, Trost G, Czesnick H, Ramming A, Kolbe B, Vi SL, Bispo C, Becker JD, de Moor C, Lenhard M (2015) Genome-Wide Analysis of PAPS1-Dependent Polyadenylation Identifies Novel Roles for Functionally Specialized Poly(A) Polymerases in Arabidopsis thaliana PLoS Genet.11(8):e1005474

Corneila De Moor is a lecturer in the RNA biology group at the University of Nottingham, School of Pharmacy. However she is involved with this German-led study that looks at nuclear poly(A) polymerase (PAPS) in Arabidopsis. The three PAPS in Arabidopsis are functional specialised and this study investigates the transcriptional profile of altered poly(A) lengths to show that the PAPS1 protein is preferentially involved in ribosome biogenesis and redox homeostasis. This suggests that expression levels are strongly linked to poly(A) tail length and that relative activities of the PAPS isoforms are used as an endogenous mechanism to co-ordinately modulate plant gene expression.

Motion GB, Howden AJ, Huitema E, Jones S (2015) DNA-binding protein prediction using plant specific support vector machines: validation and application of a new genome annotation tool Nucleic Acids Res.

Edgar Huitema is the plant science lead on this collaboration with computer scientists at the James Hutton Institute that introduces a new genome analysis tool that aims to functional annotate protein products. The focus of the study is on DNA-binding proteins and this new support vector machine model more accurately predicts this type of protein than generic versions. The model was developed in Arabidopsis but when turned to the tomato genome it annotated 36 currently uncharacterised proteins. This model is publically available and the authors hope that it will be used in combination with existing tools to increase annotation levels of DNA-binding proteins

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: August 27th

The Arabdopsis Research Roundup broadens its remit this week. As well as including three original research papers, which look at casparian strip formation, light and hormone signaling, we also highlight an important viewpoint article that aims to set standards for synthetic biology parts. In addition we include a meeting report from a plant synthetic biology summer school and interviews with plant scientists at the JIC, Caroline Dean and Anne Osbourn.

Kamiya T, Borghi M, Wang P, Danku JM, Kalmbach L, Hosmani PS, Naseer S, Fujiwara T, Geldner N, Salt DE (2015) The MYB36 transcription factor orchestrates Casparian strip formation Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Open Access

GARNet Advisory Board Chairman David Salt (Aberdeen) leads this international collaboration that looks at the (relatively) poorly understood Casparian strip (CS), a lignin-based filter that lies in root endodermal cells. Formation of the CS is initiated by Casparian strip domain proteins (CASPs) that recruit other proteins, which begin the process of lignin deposition. In this study the authors look upstream this process and identify the transcription factor MYB36 that directly regulates expression of CASPs and is essential for CS formation. Ectopic expression of MYB36 in root cortical tissues is sufficient to stimulate expression of CASP1-GFP and subsequent deposit a CS-like structure in the cell wall of cortex cells. These results have implications for the design of future experiments that aim to control how nutrients are taken up by the plant as even though myb36 mutants have a ‘root-defect’, they also have changes to their leaf ionome.

Sadanandom A, Ádám É, Orosa B, Viczián A, Klose C, Zhang C, Josse EM, Kozma-Bognár L, Nagy F (2015) SUMOylation of phytochrome-B negatively regulates light-induced signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Open Access

Ari Sadanandom (Durham) and Ferenc Nagy (Edinburgh) are the leaders of this study that investigates the precise function of the PhyB photoreceptor protein. PhyB interacts with a wide range of downstream signaling partners including the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) transcription factors. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptide is conjugated to larger proteins to bring about a variety of signaling outcomes. In this case the authors find that SUMO is preferentially attached to the C-term of PhyB under red light conditions, a relationship that occurs in a diurnal pattern. SUMOylation of PhyB prevents interaction with PIF5 whilst the OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 (OTS1) protein likely de-SUMOlyates PhyB in vivo. Altered levels of PhyB SUMOylation cause distinct light-responsive phenotypes and as such this paper adds another level of regulation to the already complex known network that controls light signaling.

Schuster C, Gaillochet C, Lohmann JU (2015) Arabidopsis HECATE genes function in phytohormone control during gynoecium development Development. Open Access

Christopher Schuster who is now a postdoc based at the Sainsbury lab in Cambridge is the lead author on this investigation into the role of the HECATE (HEC) family of bHLH transcription factors on fruit development in Arabidopsis. During this process HEC proteins are involved in the response to both the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin, the authors proposing that HEC1 plays an essential role in Arabidopsis gynoecium formation.

Patron N et al (2015) Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts New Phytologist Open Access

Carmichael RE, Boyce A, Matthewman C Patron N (2015) An introduction to synthetic biology in plant systems New Phytologist Open Access

Although not strictly based on Arabdopsis work, there are a couple of articles in New Phytologist that have broad relevance to plant scientists who are interested in plant synthetic biology. In the first of these Nicola Patron (The Sainsbury Laboratory) leads a wide consortium that aims to set parameters for the standardisation of parts in plant synthetic biology. It is hoped that as the principles of synbio are used more widley in the plant sciences that the proposals in this paper will serve as a useful guide to standidise part production. GARNet has recently written a blog post on this topic.
The associated meeting report looks at the use of plant synthetic biology in a teaching context with a synopsis of the ERASynBio summer school hosted by John Innes Centre. In this event, young researchers from a range of backgrounds were introduced to the power and potential of plant synthetic biology through a diverse course of lectures, practical session and group projects.


Vicente C (2015) An interview with Caroline Dean Development Open Access

An interview with Anne Osbourn (2015) New Phytologist <a href="http://dx.doi acheter″ onclick=”_gaq.push([‘_trackEvent’, ‘outbound-article’, ‘’, ‘ ‘]);” target=”_blank”> Open Access

These are interviews with eminent female plant molecular biologists who both work at the John Innes Centre. Caroline Dean’s lab focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate vernalisation whilst Anne Osbourn is interested in using synthetic biology approaches to engineer metabolic pathways for the production of novel compounds.

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