Arabidopsis Research Roundup: December 9th.

This December 9th Arabidopsis Research Roundup includes four rather different studies. Firstly we include an excellent audio description from David Salt about a new type of GWAS analysis that his lab was involved in developing. This allowed identification of new genetic loci involved in molybdenum signalling. Secondly Isabelle Carre’s group from Warwick presents a study into the interactions that define the functioning of the circadian clock. Thirdly Mike Blatt leads a study that models stomatal opening and finally we include an investigation of the DOG1 gene, that includes a contribution from Fuquan Liu.

Forsberg SK, Andreatta ME, Huang XY, Danku J, Salt DE, Carlborg Ö (2015) The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance PLoS Genet. e1005648. Open Access.

Current GARNet Chairman David Salt (Aberdeen) is the UK lead on this collaboration with the lab of Orjan Carlborg from Uppsala in Sweden. The novelty of this paper is in the development of a new technique to measure Genome-Wide Association using the variance in SNP differences instead of using the mean. Professor Salt explained this vGWA technique in the attached audio-file, which is especially useful for people not so familiar with GWAS. Using this vGWA technique the authors were able to re-analyse an old dataset to gain additional understanding of how certain genetic loci are regulated to explain differences in the production of the essential nutrient molybdenum. Overall this paper introduces an analysis technique that can hopefully be used by other members of the community to analyse/re-analyse their data with increased rigour.

This is the 10minute audio file where David explains the paper:

Adams S, Manfield I, Stockley P, Carré IA (2015) Revised Morning Loops of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock Based on Analyses of Direct Regulatory Interactions. PLoS One.10(12):e0143943. 10.1371/journal.pone.0143943 Open Access

This collaboration between the Universities of Warwick and Leeds is led by Isabelle Carré and investigates the Arabidopsis circadian clock. They analysed the in vivo interactions of the LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) protein with promotors of other clock components. This uncovered a novel regulatory loop between LHY and the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED-1 (CCA1) gene. Furthermore they show LHY acts as a repressor of all other clock components, clearly placing this protein as a key regulatory component of the Arabidopsis clock.

Minguet-Parramona C, Wang Y, Hills A, Vialet-Chabrand S, Griffiths H, Rogers S, Lawson T, Lew V, Blatt MR (2015) An optimal frequency in Ca2+ oscillations for stomatal closure is an emergent property of ion transport in guard cells. Plant Physiol. Open Access

Mike Blatt is the corresponding author for this collaboration between Glasgow, Cambridge and Essex Universities. There are a good number of UK researchers who investigate the factors that regulate stomatal opening and this study looks at the role of calcium oscillations in this process. They have used the Arabidopsis OnGuard model that faithfully reproduces the optimum 10minute period of Ca2+ oscillation in guard cells. They used experimentally derived kinetics to describe the activity of ion transporters in the plasma membrane and tonoplast. Overall they discovered that the calcium oscillations are actually a by-product of the ion transport that determines stomatal aperature and not the overall controlling factor.

Cyrek M, Fedak H, Ciesielski A, Guo Y, Śliwa A, Brzeźniak L, Krzyczmonik K, Pietras Z, Liu F, Kaczanowski S, Swiezewski S (2015) Seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by alternative polyadenylation of DOG1 Plant Physiol.

Fuquan Liu (Queens, Belfast) is the UK contributor to this Polish-led study focused on the DOG1 gene, which is a key regulator of Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Previously it had been shown that the C-terminus of DOG1 is not conserved in many other plant species. The DOG1 transcript is alternatively polyadenylated and the authors show that Arabidopsis mutants that lack current 3’ RNA processing also show defects in seed dormancy. The shorter version of DOG1 is able to rescue the dog1 phenotype, which allows the authors to propose that DOG1 is a key regulator of seed dormancy and that the phenotypes of RNA processing mutants are linked to the incorrect processing of this specific mRNA species.

Arabidopsis Research Roundup: August 5th

This weeks Arabidopsis Research Roundup bucks the recent trend of featuring large consortium-led studies as it contains four studies each from a single UK Institution. Matthew Jones (Essex) looks at the link between photosynthesis, the circadian clock and blue-light signaling whilst Miriam Gifford (Warwick) uses cell sorting to more precisely define the plants response to an oomycete pathogen. Elsewhere Peter Eastmond (Rothamstead) looks at lipid metabolism and Keith Lindsey (Durham) leads a theorectical study on the effectiveness of methods for modelling hormone crosstalk in the root.

Litthauer S, Battle M, Lawson T, Jones MA (2015) Phototropins Maintain Robust Circadian Oscillation of PSII Operating Efficiency Under Blue Light Plant J.

Matt Jones is a Leuverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Essex and this study is his first output as a group leader. It investigates the affect of the circadian clock on the operating efficiency of photosystem II (PSII). Previous this efficiency had been shown to be controlled by transcriptional feedback loops within the nucleus. However this study shows that in blue light it is maintained by phototropin receptors, which do not influence the nucleus. The novel imaging methodology used in this study highlight differences between the modulation of circadian outputs in distinct subcellular compartments.

Coker TL, Cevik V, Beynon JL, Gifford ML (2015) Spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptional response to downy mildew using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting Front Plant Sci.

Miriam Gifford leads this study from the University of Warwick that looks at the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis to downy mildew infection. The Gifford lab are experts in analysis of transcriptional data from microarrays. This study uses FACS-sorted cells infected with the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis in an attempt to focus-in on infected cells without the diluting effects of non-infected cells within the same tissue. Almost 300 transcripts were differentially expressed between haustoriated and non-haustoriated cells and this technique uncovered novel genes that had previously not been implicated in playing a role in this pathogen response.

Craddock CP, Adams N, Bryant FM, Kurup S, Eastmond PJ (2015) Regulation of endomembrane biogenesis in Arabidopsis by PHOSPATIDIC ACID HYDROLASE Plant Signal Behav.

This study was wholly undertaken at Rothamsted Research led by Peter Eastmond. They investigate the coordination of lipid biosynthesis by focussing on the activity of two different enzymes, PHOSPHATIDIC ACID PHOSPHOHYDROLASE (PAH) and PHOSPHOCHOLINE CYTIDYLYLTRANSFERASE (CCT). These enzymes participate in a feedback loop to control the biosynthesis of phosphaticylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA), which is linked to biogenesis of the endoplasmic reticulum. This work offers a clue that PAH activity may require phosphorylation even though this data is not yet clear.

Simon Moore, Xiaoxian Zhang, Junli Liu & Keith Lindsey (2015) Some fundamental aspects of modelling auxin patterning in the context of auxin-ethylene-cytokinin crosstalk Plant Signalling and Behaviour

In this manuscript Keith Lindsey and colleagues from Durham University use the paradigm of root-tip auxin-ethylene-cytokinin signaling to discuss the effectiveness of linking experimental data, reaction kinetics and spatiotemporal modelling to dissect hormonal crosstalk. The authors agree that the integration of kinetic equations with spatial root structure can produce powerful models for assessing the crosstalk of multiple hormone interactions in a spatiotemporal manner. Finally the authors come up with key recommendations to be considered when developing models for spatiotemporal hormonal crosstalk in the Arabidopsis root

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