GARNet Research Roundup: March 21st 2019

This edition of the GARNet research roundup begins with a study from the John Innes Centre that investigates the role of auxin in the control of fruit development in Capsella.

Auxin is also a central focus of the next paper that is from SLCU, in which the authors characterise the role of different types of auxin transport during shoot development. The third paper, also from Cambridge, identifies a new function for members of the DUF579 enzyme family. The final paper from Cambridge reports on an outstanding citizen science project that looks at how different temperature and light conditions influence the growth of spring onions.

The next paper is from the University of Glasgow and investigates the role of the SNARE protein complex during vesicle transport in Arabidopsis.

The final two papers include authors from the University of Nottingham. Firstly Anthony Bishopp leads research that defines determinants of vascular patterning across plant species. Finally Don Grierson is a co-author on work that has identified novel signaling components involved in the response to hypoxia in Persimmon and Arabidopsis.


Dong Y, Jantzen F, Stacey N, Łangowski Ł, Moubayidin L, Šimura J, Ljung K, Østergaard L (2019) Regulatory Diversification of INDEHISCENT in the Capsella Genus Directs Variation in Fruit Morphology. Curr Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.01.057

Open Access

This research from Lars Ostergaard’s lab in the John Innes Centre is led by Yang Dong. The work is primarily conducted in Capsella and investigates the role of the INDEHISCENT (IND) protein in this plant, which has fruits that are morphologically distinct from those in Arabidopsis. Expression of CrIND controls fruit shape by influencing auxin biosynthesis leading to auxin accumulation in specific maxima that are localised to the fruit valves.

doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.01.057

van Rongen M, Bennett T, Ticchiarelli F, Leyser O (2019) Connective auxin transport contributes to strigolactone-mediated shoot branching control independent of the transcription factor BRC1. PLoS Genet. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008023

Open Access

Martin Van Rongen is the lead author on this research performed under the supervision of Ottoline Leyser at the Sainsbury Lab, Cambridge University. They investigate the hormonal signals that underpin the remarkable plasticity of shoot patterning, focusing on a genetic analysis of connective auxin transport (CAT), which moves the hormone across the stem (in contrast to up-down polar transport). Using multiple pin mutant plants, they show CAT is important in the regulation of strigolactone-mediated shoot branching. However shoot branching controlled by the BRANCHED1 transcription factor is reliant on the ABCB19 auxin export protein and is not significantly influenced by the activity of PIN proteins. Martin van Rongen discusses this paper on the GARNet YouTube channel.


Temple, H, Mortimer, JC, Tryfona, T, et al (2019) Two members of the DUF579 family are responsible for arabinogalactan methylation in Arabidopsis. Plant Direct. https://doi.org/10.1002/pld

Open Access

Henry Temple works with Paul Dupree at the University of Cambridge and leads this study that identifies a novel activity of two DUF579 enzymes in the methylation of glucuronic acid within highly glycosylated arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). This differs from all other previously characterized DUF579 members that have been previously shown to methylate glucuronic acid within the cell wall component xylan.


Brestovitsky, A, Ezer, D (2019) A mass participatory experiment provides a rich temporal profile of temperature response in spring onions. Plant Direct. 2019; 3: 1– 11. https://doi.org/10.1002/pld3.126

Open Access

This citizen science project led by Anna Brestovitsky and Daphne Ezer was performed in collaboration with the BBC Terrific Scientific program. In this study primary school students from across the UK recorded the growth of spring onions over a two-week period, which was then cross-referenced with detailed hourly meteorological data. This allowed the authors to discern the effect of minute temperature and light changes on plant growth and perhaps more importantly demonstrated that even the youngest researchers, when involved a well-designed citizen science project, can yield very useful data.


Zhang B, Karnik RA, Alvim JC, Donald NA, Blatt MR (2019) Dual Sites for SEC11 on the SNARE SYP121 Implicate a Binding Exchange during Secretory Traffic. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1104/pp.18.01315

Open Access

Ben Zhang and Rucha Karnik are first authors on this paper that continues Mike Blatt‘s lab’s study of SNARE proteins, which are involved in vesicle trafficking. This study defines a new amino acid motif within SNARE SYP121 that is needed for the binding of the SEC11 protein but is not involved in binding plasma membrane K+ channels. This motif is essential for assembly of the entire SNARE complex yet does not influence the interaction of SYP121 with the uptake of K+ ions.


Mellor N, Vaughan-Hirsch J, Kümpers BMC, Help-Rinta-Rahko H, Miyashima S, Mähönen AP, Campilho A, King JR, Bishopp A (2019) A core mechanism for specifying root vascular patterning can replicate the anatomical variation seen in diverse plant species. Development. doi: 10.1242/dev.172411

Open Access

Nathan Mellor is first author on this work led by the lab of Anthony Bishopp at the University of Nottingham. The primary accomplishment of this work is in the development of a mathematical model that is able to predict the role of auxin in the specification of vascular patterning during embryonic development. This model has been tested through experimental interrogation of both transgenic Arabidopsis plants and in a range of other species with different vascular development patterns. Importantly they show that a heterologous auxin input might not be as critical in vascular development when compared to growth patterns that arise from spatial constraints. The authors show that this model has broad relevance to define early vascular patterning across plant species.


Zhu QG, Gong Z, Huang J, Grierson D, Chen KS, Yin XR (2019) High-CO2/hypoxia-responsive transcription factors DkERF24 and DkWRKY1 interact and activate DkPDC2 promoter. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1104/pp.18.01552

Open Access

Don Greirson is a co-author on this Chinese-led study that identifies a set of transcription factors from Persimmon ((Diospyros kaki). These TFs are involved in responses to high CO2 and the authors show that their Arabidopsis orthologs play a similar role. The authors introduce a new response module that may be important during this key environmental response.

GARNet Research Roundup: February 14th 2019

This GARNet research Roundup includes a broad range of topics and contributing institutions. First is a study from TSL that investigates the molecular basis of Arabidopsis and Brassica responses to white rust disease. Second is work from Warwick that uses Arabidopsis as a tool to test genes involved in the evolution of Flax domestication.

The third paper is work from Cambridge that models the response of the circadian oscillator to nicotinamide whilst the fourth paper is a study from the University of Dundee that compares differential gene expression software in the analysis of RNAseq data from a complex organism. The penultimate paper includes a co-author from the University of Oxford and has generated an extended phylogeny of the Brassicaceae family. The final paper compares the growth and metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis and Eutrema salsugineum following drought stress.


Cevik V, Boutrot F, Apel W, Robert-Seilaniantz A, Furzer OJ, Redkar A, Castel B, Kover PX, Prince DC, Holub EB, Jones JDG (2019) Transgressive segregation reveals mechanisms of Arabidopsis immunity to Brassica-infecting races of white rust (Albugo candida). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1812911116

Open Access

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/7/2767.long

Volkan Cevik is the lead author on this international collaboration that is led by Jonathan Jones at the Sainsbury Lab, Norwich. They have taken advantage of Arabidopsis resistance to white rust (Albugo candida) and used the Multiparent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) lines to identity the genes responsible for this resistance. This is important as related crop species Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea are sensitive to this economically important pathogen. They identified a range of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-encoding genes that were involved in resistance to the pathogen.


Gutaker RM, Zaidem M, Fu YB, Diederichsen A, Smith O, Ware R, Allaby RG (2019) Flax latitudinal adaptation at LuTFL1 altered architecture and promoted fiber production. Sci Rep. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37086-5

Open Access

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37086-5

Rafal Gutaker is the lead author on this collaborative study between the University of Warwick and colleagues in Germany, Canada and Denmark, which investigated the route of domestication of the cultivated crop Flax. At northern european latitudes flax evolved to become a fibre crop rather than an oil crop by stem expansion and reduction of seed size. The authors investigated the role in this adaptation of PEBP family genes in the flax genome, LuTFL1 and LuTFL2. LuTFL1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, demonstrating that it is able to perform roles in flowering time and plant architecture. This research highlights the importance of Arabidopsis as a tool for testing the function of genes from less-easily transformed organisms.


Mombaerts L, Carignano A, Robertson FR, Hearn TJ, Junyang J, Hayden D, Rutterford Z, Hotta CT, Hubbard KE, Maria MRC, Yuan Y, Hannah MA, Goncalves J, Webb AAR (2019) Dynamical differential expression (DyDE) reveals the period control mechanisms of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator. PLoS Comput Biol. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006674

Open Access

Laurents Mombarts is the first author in this collaboration between the departments of Plant science and Engineering at the University of Cambridge that looked at the mechanistic effect on nicotinamide on the timing of the circadian oscillation. They developed a systematic and practical modeling framework for the gene regulatory circuits that respond to nicotinamide. They initially developed a mathematical model and then experimentally confirmed their predictions to uncover a role for blue light signalling in this response. Overall their approach could be adapted to predict mechanisms of drug action in other complex biological systems.


Froussios K, Schurch NJ, Mackinnon K, Gierlinski M, Duc C, Simpson GG, Barton GJ (2019) How well do RNA-Seq differential gene expression tools perform in a complex eukaryote? A case study in A. thaliana. Bioinformatics. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btz089

Open Access

Gordon Simpson and colleagues at the University of Dundee collaborate with researchers in Clermont-Ferrand with Kimon Froussios as first author. They use Arabidopsis as a model to test a set of Differential Gene Expression (DGE) tools for the effective analysis of RNAseq data generated with three or fewer biological replicates. They tested nine widely used DGE tools and ultimately recommend the use of tools that are based on the negative binomial distribution.

https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006674

Nikolov LA, Shushkov P, Nevado B, Gan X, Al-Shehbaz IA, Filatov D, Bailey CD, Tsiantis M (2019) Resolving the backbone of the Brassicaceae phylogeny for investigating trait diversity. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.15732.

https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.15732

This German, US and UK collaboration is led by Lachezar Nikolov and includes Dmitry Filatov from the University of Oxford as a co-author. They generated a phylogeny of the Brassicaceae, the family that contains Arabidopsis and a number of economically important crops. They used a mixture of fresh tissue and herbarium samples to perform the analysis on almost 80 species; enabling the resolution of new relationships between family members. This work represents an important tool for phylogenetic and comparative studies to maximise future outputs.


Pinheiro C, Dickinson E, Marriott A, Ribeiro IC, Pintó-Marijuan M, António C, Zarrouk O, Chaves MM, Dodd IC, Munné-Bosch S, Thomas-Oates J, Wilson J (2019) Distinctive phytohormonal and metabolic profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema salsugineum under similar soil drying. Planta. doi: 10.1007/s00425-019-03095-5

This collaboration between the UK and Portugal is led by Carla Pinheiro and the corresponding author is Julie Wilson from the University of York. Eutrema salsugineum is a stress-tolerance relative of Arabidopsis and in this study the authors have compared the response of these plants following growth on drying soils. Whereas stomatal sensitivity was similar in both species there were significant differences in metabolite profiles and water usage following drought stress. This analysis allowed the authors to conclude that Arabidopsis is indeed a good model for analysis of responses to commonly encountered levels of drought stress.

GARNet Research Roundup: January 31st 2019

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Published on: January 31, 2019

This edition of the GARNet research roundup has an initial focus on the shoot apical meristem. Firstly a study from the University of Birmingham performs network analysis to define the connections that control the global organisation of this tissue.

Second is the first of a group of papers involving authors from the Sainsbury Lab, Cambridge University and the University of Cambridge. Henrik Jönsson and Henrik Ahl contribute to a study that refines our understanding about the role of auxin in leaf dorsoventral patterning. Next from SLCU are two papers published in collaboration with the University of Helsinki that identify a set of novel regulators of cambial development.

The final SLCU paper from James Locke’s group attempts to tackle the challenging topic of ‘noise’ in biological systems. The final paper from the University of Cambridge investigate factors involved in karrikin signaling.

The penultimate paper characterises the LINC complex in monocots and includes authors from Oxford Brookes University whilst the final paper is from the University of York and performs a structural analysis of a key enzyme involved in the potential phytoremediation of TNT.


Jackson MDB, Duran-Nebreda S, Kierzkowski D, Strauss S, Xu H, Landrein B, Hamant O, Smith RS, Johnston IG, Bassel GW (2019) Global Topological Order Emerges through Local Mechanical Control of Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem. Cell Syst. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2018.12.009

Open Access

George Bassel is corresponding author of this paper led by Matthew Jackson at the University of Birmingham. They use live 3D imaging and computational analysis to identify a network of cellular connections in the shoot apical meristem. They show that locally generated cell division rules lead to emergence of global tissue organisation, which facilitates cellular communication. In addition they show that global cellular organization requires the activity of the KATANIN protein.


Bhatia N, Åhl H, Jönsson H, Heisler MG (2019) Quantitative analysis of auxin sensing in leaf primordia argues against proposed role in regulating leaf dorsoventrality. Elife. doi: 10.7554/eLife.39298

Open Access

Henrik Jönsson and Henrik Ahl at SLCU are co-authors on this study led by Neha Bhatia at the University of Sydney. They use data gained from analysis of the R2D2 auxin sensor to argue against the current hypothesis stating that asymmetric auxin distribution is necessary to define the dorso-ventral polarity of the Arabidopsis leaf. They repeat previous experiments using the DII auxin sensor and through additional analysis using an auxin insensitive version of the sensor (mDII), provide results that contrast to previously published data.

https://elifesciences.org/articles/39298

Miyashima S, Roszak P, Sevilem I, Toyokura K, Blob B, Heo JO, Mellor N, Help-Rinta-Rahko H, Otero S, Smet W, Boekschoten M, Hooiveld G, Hashimoto K, Smetana O, Siligato R, Wallner ES, Mähönen AP, Kondo Y, Melnyk CW, Greb T, Nakajima K, Sozzani R, Bishopp A, De Rybel B, Helariutta Y (2019). Mobile PEAR transcription factors integrate positional cues to prime cambial growth. Nature doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0839-y

Smetana O, Mäkilä R, Lyu M, Amiryousefi A, Sánchez Rodríguez F, Wu MF, Solé-Gil A, Leal Gavarrón M, Siligato R, Miyashima S, Roszak P, Blomster T, Reed JW, Broholm S, Mähönen AP (2019). High levels of auxin signalling define the stem-cell organizer of the vascular cambium. Nature. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0837-0

These back-to-back manuscripts include Pawel Roszak from the SLCU as an author in both papers. The corresponding author for the first paper, which is a true global collaboration, is Yrjo Helariutta who holds research positions at both SLCU and the University of Helsinki. These papers introduce a new signalling module of transcriptional factors that control radial growth initiated in procambial cells. In root protophloem cells cytokinin induces the expression of a newly characterised set of PEAR transcription factors, which form a short-range concentration gradient and initiate radial growth. To maintain tight developmental control of this program PEAR protein activity is antagonised by HD-ZIP III proteins, whose expression domain is controlled by the activity of auxin and a set of mobile miRNAs. The identification of this signalling module increases our understanding about the factors that control the growth of woody tissues and therefore has enormous translational significance.


Cortijo S, Aydin Z, Ahnert S, Locke JC (2019) Widespread inter-individual gene expression variability in Arabidopsis thaliana Mol Syst Biol. doi: 10.15252/msb.20188591

Open Access

Sandra Cortijo is the lead author of this paper and works with James Locke at SLCU. They have attempted to address the fundamental question of noise within biological outputs through analysis of gene expression from a set of identical Arabidopsis plants grown in identical conditions. They identify hundreds of genes that show variable expression between these plants, with different gene sets changing throughout the diurnal cycle. They further define this variability by identifying gene length, the number of transcription factors regulating the genes and the chromatin environment as contributory factors to explain why this variation occurs.


Swarbreck SM, Guerringue Y, Matthus E, Jamieson FJC, Davies JM (2019) Impairment in karrikin but not strigolactone sensing enhances root skewing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. doi: 10.1111/tpj.14233

Stéphanie Swarbreck is the first author of this work from Julia Davies’ lab at the University of Cambridge. They show that perception of karrikins (smoke-derived butenolides) through the interaction of the KAI2 hydrolase and MAX2 F-box protein occurs independent of strigolactone-sensing mechanism of the MAX2-D14 hydrolase interaction. Karrikins cause a root skewing phenotype so the authors use this output to identify that previously characterised SMAX1 (SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2-1)/SMXL2 and SMXL6,7,8 (SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2-1-LIKE) proteins are targets of degradation by the KAI2/MAX2 complex. Overall they show that KAI2/MAX2 limits root skewing but is not involved in the role KAI2 plays in gravi- or mechano-sensing. These results are indicative of a set of KAI2 specific ligands that control root skewing yet candidate proteins for these roles remain to be identified.


Gumber HK, McKenna JF, Estrada AL, Tolmie AF, Graumann K, Bass HW (2019) Identification and characterization of genes encoding the nuclear envelope LINC complex in the monocot species Zea mays. J Cell Sci. doi: 10.1242/jcs.221390

This paper is led by Hank Bass and Hardeep Gumber from Florida State University and includes Joe McKenna, Andrea Tolmie and Katja Graumann at Oxford Brookes as co-authors. They use phylogenetic and microscopic analysis to identify and characterise components of the nuclear-envelope spanning LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) complex in Zea mays. They identify a set of monocot-specific members of the LINC complex, which will allow an increased understanding about the functional linkages between the cytoplasm, nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm and chromatin.

Hank Bass discusses this paper on the GARNet YouTube channel. Hank and Katja are members of the EU COST action entitled ‘Impact of Nuclear Domains On Gene Expression and Plant Traits (INDEPTH).


Tzafestas K, Ahmad L, Dani MP, Grogan G, Rylott EL, Bruce NC (2018) Structure-Guided Mechanisms Behind the Metabolism of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Glutathione Transferases U25 and U24 That Lead to Alternate Product Distribution Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01846

Open Access

Kyriakos Tzafestas is the first author on this paper from the University of York led by Neil Bruce. They perform a structural analysis of the Arabidopsis tau class glutathione transferase, GSTU25, which is involved in the phytoremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). This analysis identified of a key set of amino acids involved in a precise part of its enzymatic activity, which can in turn be transferred to the related, but enzymatically-inert GSTU24. These findings will aid in the development of increasingly efficient strategies for plant-based remediation of environmental TNT.

GARNet Research Roundup: December 21st 2018

This bumper Festive Edition of the GARNet Research Roundup begins with two papers that have Beatriz Orosa-Puente as lead author following her work on SUMOylation with Ari Sadanandom at Durham. These papers looks at the role of SUMOylation in either auxin-mediated hydropatterning or in the defence response. Malcolm Bennett at Nottingham is a co-author on both papers and provided an audio description of the auxin-focused paper on the GARNet YouTube channel.

The next three papers are from the University of Edinburgh, the first that defines the role of HECT ubiquitin ligases in the defence response, the second that conducts a proteomic analysis of the GIGANTEA-interactome and the third that introduces a set of new tools for inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis roots.

The sixth and seventh papers feature authors from the John Innes Centre. Martin Howard and Caroline Dean are corresponding authors on a multi-scale analysis of the factors that control FLC expression whilst Myriam Charpentier’s lab has contributed to an investigation about LINC complexes in Medicago.

David Salt and Levi Yant from Nottingham lead the next paper that provides an analysis of the genetic determinants of adaptation to different salt conditions.

The final three papers are from Cambridge. Firstly Ian Henderson is the corresponding author on work that looks at crossover rates in specific disease resistance loci. Second is work from the Paszkowski lab at SLCU that introduces a new method for the analysis of active retrotransposons in crop plants whilst finally James Locke, also at SLCU, uses the method of distributed delays to simplify the complexity of biological network models.


Orosa-Puente B, Leftley N, von Wangenheim D, Banda J, Srivastava AK, Hill K, Truskina J, Bhosale R, Morris E, Srivastava M, Kümpers B, Goh T, Fukaki H, Vermeer J, Vernoux T, Dinneny JR, French AP, Bishopp A, Sadanandom A , Bennett MJ (2018) Roots branch towarss water by post-translational modification of the transcription factor ARF7 Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3956

Orosa B, Yates G, Verma V, Srivastava AK, Srivastava M, Campanaro A, De Vega D, Fernandes A, Zhang C, Lee J, Bennett MJ, Sadanandom A (2018) SUMO conjugation to the pattern recognition receptor FLS2 triggers intracellular signalling in plant innate immunity. Nat Commun. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07696-8 Open Access

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6421/1407

Beatriz Orosa-Puente is the lead author on two publications that have arisen from a collaboration between the labs of Ari Sadanandom at Durham and Malcolm Bennett at Nottingham. In the first paper Beatriz is co-first author with Nicola Leftley and Daniel von Wangenheim in research that links the auxin response, SUMOylation and the search for water. They reveal a novel mechanism for controlling the auxin response in which SUMOylation regulates the interaction between the ARF7 and IAA3 proteins. In turn this controls asymmetric expression of genes downstream of ARF7 and determines how different parts of the root response to the presence or absence of water.

The second paper continues with the Sadanandom lab’s focus on SUMOylation, in this case during control of the defence response. They show that SUMO is conjugated to the FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2) receptor that senses bacterial flagellin. This releases downstream cytoplasmic effectors and enhances the immune response. The authors show that there is additional complexity to this system by also showing that flagellin induces degradation of the deSUMOylating enzyme Desi3a, thus allowing the plant to make a stronger immune response.


Furniss JJ, Grey H, Wang Z, Nomoto M, Jackson L, Tada Y, Spoel SH (2018) Proteasome-associated HECT-type ubiquitin ligase activity is required for plant immunity. PLoS Pathog. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007447 Open Access

James Furniss is the lead author on this paper from the lab of current GARNet Chairman Steven Spoel at the University of Edinburgh. They show that a family of HECT domain-containing ubiquitin protein ligases (UPLs) are involved in defence responses mediated by the hormone salicylic acid (SA). Upl3 mutants show reprogramming of the entire SA transcriptional response and they are unable to establish immunity against a hemi-biotrophic pathogen, demonstrating their key role in this important process.


https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/1873-3468.13311

Krahmer J, Goralogia GS, Kubota A, Zardilis A, Johnson RS, Song YH, MacCoss MJ, LeBihan T, Halliday KJ, Imaizumi T, Millar AJ (2018) Time-resolved Interaction Proteomics of the GIGANTEA Protein Under Diurnal Cycles in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13311 Open Access

This paper is a collaboration between researchers in Edinburgh and Seattle for which Johanna Krahmer is lead author. They used a proteomic approach to identify proteins that interacted with a tagged-version of the key circadian regulator GIGANTEA. They successfully identified the novel transcription factor CYCLING DOF FACTOR (CDF)6. CDF6 was confirmed as interacting with GI and playing a role in the control of flowering. The time series of proteomic data produced in this study is available for use by any other interested researcher.

http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/cgi/GetDataset?ID=PXD006859


Machin FQ, Beckers M, Tian X, Fairnie A, Cheng T, Scheible WR, Doerner P (2018) Inducible reporter/driver lines for the Arabidopsis root with intrinsic reporting of activity state. Plant Journal. doi: 10.1111/tpj.14192

Frank Qasim Machin is the lead author on this Technical Advance from Peter Doerner’s lab at the University of Edinburgh. They have developed a Gateway-based system for tightly controlled inducible expression across all the major cell types of the Arabidopsis roots. They have fully characterised reference driver lines that can be adapted for specific experimental requirements and hope that this contributes towards enhancing reproducibility of qualitative and quantitative analyses.


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405471218304368?via%3Dihub

Antoniou-Kourounioti RL, Hepworth J, Heckmann A, Duncan S, Qüesta J, Rosa S, Säll T, Holm S, Dean C, Howard M (2018) Temperature Sensing Is Distributed throughout the Regulatory Network that Controls FLC Epigenetic Silencing in Vernalization. Cell Syst. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2018.10.011 Open Access

This work results from the successful collaboration between Caroline Dean and Martin Howard at the John Innes Centre and includes Rea Antoniou-Kourounioti and Jo Hepworth as co-first authors. They attempt to understand how the upregulation of VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3) and silencing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is controlled during fluctuating temperatures over month-long time scales. They develop a mathematical model that integrates information from hour, day and month-long datasets to show that temperature is sensed across the entire regulatory network and not focussed on specific nodes. This allows a final effect to only be realised once all parts of the network have been appropriately changed. This model with matches new field data and therefore represents a predictive tool for the effects of climate change on plant growth.


Newman-Griffis AH, Del Cerro P, Charpentier M, Meier I (2018) Medicago LINC complexes function in nuclear morphology, nuclear movement, and root nodule symbiosis Plant Physiol. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/early/2018/12/10/pp.18.01111 Open Access
Pablo del Cerro and Myriam Charpentier at the John Innes Centre are co-authors on this paper from Iris Meier’s lab at The Ohio State University. They identify and characterise the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) family of nucleus-membrane-associated proteins. They show that, as in Arabidopsis, these proteins are required for nucleus movement in the root tip cells of Medicago truncatula and that they are an important contributor to nodulation. Both Iris and Myriam are members of the INDEPTH consortium that includes researchers who study this broad area of plant cell biology.


https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/12/11/1816964115.long

Busoms S, Paajanen P, Marburger S, Bray S, Huang XY, Poschenrieder C, Yant L, Salt DE (2018) Fluctuating selection on migrant adaptive sodium transporter alleles in  coastal Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1816964115 Open Access

This UK-Sino-Spanish collaboration is led by David Salt and Levi Yant at the University of Nottingham. Silvia Busoms is the first author on the study that investigates the genetics of adaptive salt tolerance in a cohort of 77 individuals grown across a salinity gradient in a coastal region of Catalonia. By integrating their data with the 1135 genomes project they are able to trace the ancestry of these populations and define that growth in high salt conditions is associated with increased expression of the high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT1;1). This demonstrates that this gene plays a key role in the adaptation to salt stress.


Serra H, Choi K, Zhao X, Blackwell AR, Kim J, Henderson IR. Interhomolog polymorphism shapes meiotic crossover within the Arabidopsis RAC1 and RPP13 disease resistance genes (2018) PLoS Genet. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007843 Open Access

This UK-Korean collaboration is led by the Heidi Serra and Ian Henderson at the University of Cambridge. They mapped the meiotic crossover hotspots that are located within the RAC1 and RPP13 disease resistance genes in Arabidopsis. They assessed these locations in plants with altered recombination rates and surprisingly showed that these effects have little impact at the RAC1 loci. Therefore they show that chromosome location and local chromatin environment are important for regulation of crossover activity. Overall they demonstrate that interhomolog divergence is important in shaping recombination within plant disease resistance genes and crossover hotspots.


Cho J, Benoit M, Catoni M, Drost HG, Brestovitsky A, Oosterbeek M, Paszkowski J (2018) Sensitive detection of pre-integration intermediates of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in crop plants. Nat Plants. doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0320-9

Open Access with link: rdcu.be/bdLjy

For the second edition in succession, the GARNet research roundup features work from Jerzy Paszkowski’s lab at SLCU. In this case Jungnam Cho is lead author on work that has developed a new technique called ALE-seq (amplification of LTR of eclDNAs followed by sequencing) for analysis of transposon-rich genomes from crop plants. Through characterisation of extrachromosomal linear DNA (eclDNA), ALE-seq allows the identification of active transposons. The authors use this technique in both rice and tomato and successfully identify a set of developmentally regulated transposable elements. This paper includes details of a bioinformatic pipeline that is adapted for ALE-seq data analyses, the scripts for which are available on GitHub.


Tokuda IT, Akman OE, Locke JCW. Reducing the Complexity of Mathematical Models for the Plant Circadian Clock by Distributed Delays (2018) J Theor Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.12.014

This UK-Japanese study includes James Locke at SLCU as corresponding author. They address the challenge of integrating an increasing number of parameters into large biological network models. Their system of study is the Arabidopsis circadian clock and they use the method of distributed delays to simplify the complexity of existing models. They demonstrate this effect by updating a model that explains the regulation of the PRR9 and PRR7 genes by LHY. They use recent experimental data and revise the previous model to show that it is more accurately reproduces the LHY-induction experiments of core clock genes. As stated they show that overall use of distributed delays facilitates the optimisation and reformulation of genetic network models.

GARNet Research Roundup: November 22nd 2018

This GARNet Research Roundup begins with two studies from the University of Sheffield. First is research from Jurriaan Ton’s lab that looks at the interaction between CO2 concentration, the soil microbiome and plant growth. The second paper from Matt Davey and Peter Quick looks at the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance in Arabidpsis lyrata.

The third study includes authors from Dundee and Durham and also looks at an impact of altered CO2 concentrations, in this case on nitrogen assimilation.

The next paper looks at the role of a GA signaling module on endosperm expansion during seed germination and includes authors from Nottingham and Birmingham.

The fifth paper includes Richard Morris at the JIC as a co-author and looks at the relationship between calcium signaling and changes in cellular pH. The penultimate study features co-authors from Warwick and Exeter in work that looks at the role of 3′-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine during plant immunity. Finally is a paper that includes Steve Long from Lancaster and characterises the rubisco-chaperone BSD2.


Williams A, Pétriacq P, Beerling DJ, Cotton TEA, Ton J (2018) Impacts of Atmospheric CO(2) and Soil Nutritional Value on Plant Responses to Rhizosphere Colonization by Soil Bacteria. Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01493

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.01493/full

Open Access

Alex Williams is the lead author of this paper and works with Jurriaan Ton at the University of Sheffield. The impact of the soil rhizosphere on plant growth is emerging as an important growth determinant. In this paper the authors assess the role of altered [CO2] and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration in the colonisation of Arabidopsis roots by two different bacteria. Firstly they showed that altered [CO2] did not change the growth dynamics of the saprophytic bacteria Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and was independent of soil C or N. In contrast growth of the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae WCS417 was sensitive to both changing [CO2] and soil composition. These results show the importance of the interaction between atmospheric CO2 and soil nutritional status during plant interactions with soil bacteria.


Davey MP, Palmer BG, Armitage E, Vergeer P, Kunin WE, Woodward FI, Quick WP (2018) Natural variation in tolerance to sub-zero temperatures among populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea. BMC Plant Biol. doi: 10.1186/s12870-018-1513-0

Open Access

Matthew Davey, now working in Cambridge, collaborated with Peter Quick at the University of Sheffield on this research that looks at the tolerance of Arabidopsis lyrata to freezing. They showed that populations from locations with colder winter climates were better able to survive subzero temperatures, particular when they have been acclimated at near zero for longer periods. This demonstrates that the adaptation of plants to cold temperatures allows them to better survive freezing, although surprisingly this effect is lessened when this acclimation period does not occur.


Andrews M, Condron LM, Kemp PD, Topping JF, Lindsey K, Hodge S, Raven JA (2018) Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on nitrogen (N) assimilation and growth of C3 vascular plants will be similar regardless of N-form assimilated. J Exp Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery371

This UK-New Zealand collaboration is led by Mitchell Andrews and looks at the effect of elevated [CO2] on the nitrogen (N) assimilation when the plant is exposed to a variety of different N-sources. They show that in C3 plants the overall N assimilated will be the same whether the plant is under ammonium (NH4+) nutrition or under nitrate (NO3-) nutrition. These results are contrary to previous results that suggest elevated [CO2] reduces plant growth under NO3- nutrition.


Sánchez-Montesino R, Bouza-Morcillo L, Marquez J, Ghita M, Duran-Nebreda S, Gómez L, Holdsworth MJ, Bassel G, Oñate-Sánchez L (2018) A regulatory module controlling GA-mediated endosperm cell expansion is critical for seed germination in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2018.10.009 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674205218303356

Open Access

This Spanish-led project includes authors from the Universites of Nottingham and Birmingham. They look at the influence of a GA signalling module on endosperm cell separation, which is essential for Arabidopsis seed germination. They show the NAC transcription factors NAC25 and NAC1L control expression of the EXPANSION2 gene and that the GA signalling component RGL2 has a controlling influence by repressing this activity.


Behera S, Xu Z, Luoni L, Bonza C, Doccula FG, DeMichelis MI, Morris RJ, Schwarzländer M, Costa A (2018) Cellular Ca2+ signals generate defined pH signatures in plants. Plant Cell. doi: 10.1105/tpc.18.00655

Open Access

Richard Morris (John Innes Centre) is a co-author on this Italian-led study that investigates the role of Calcium ions in cell signalling. They use a set of genetically-encoded fluorescent sensors to visualise a link between Ca2+ signaling and changes in pH. If this link is maintained across all cell types it might represent an extra layer of complexity and control of cellular signal transduction.


Drenichev MS, Bennett M, Novikov RA, Mansfield J, Smirnoff N, Grant M, Mikhailov S (2018) A role for 3′-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine in altering plant immunity. Phytochemistry. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.10.016

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942218301997?via%3Dihub

This Russian-led study includes UK-based researchers Mark Bennett, Murray Grant, Nick Smirnoff and John Mansfield as co-authors. They show that the natural disaccharide nucleoside, 3′-O-β-D-ribofuranosyladenosine accumulated in plants infected with the bacterial pathogen P. syringae. Perhaps surprisingly the application of this nucleoside to the plant doesn’t effect bacterial multiplication, indicating that adds a significant metabolic burden to plants already battling new infections.


Conlan B, Birch R, Kelso C, Holland S, De Souza AP, Long SP, Beck JL, Whitney SM (2018) BSD2 is a Rubisco specific assembly chaperone, forms intermediary hetero-oligomeric complexes and is non-limiting to growth in tobacco. Plant Cell Environ. doi: 10.1111/pce.13473

Steve Long is a Professor at Lancaster Environment Centre and is a co-author on this Australia-led study that characterizes the role of the Rubisco chaperone BSD2 during Rubisco biogenesis. These results suggest this is the sole role of BSD2 and its activity is non-limiting to tobacco growth.

GARNet Research Roundup: July 27th

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Published on: July 26, 2018

This GARNet research roundup includes papers that feature a number of different research areas. Firstly is work from Glasgow that investigates the photoactivation of the UVR8 light receptor. Second is work from the University of Cambridge that links the activity of the BIG protein to the circadian oscillator. The next paper has co-authors from Cambridge and looks at promotor sequences needed for expression in bundle sheath cells. The fourth paper from the University of Leeds documents an important role for peroxisomes in the drought response whilst the final manuscript includes co-authors from the University of Birmingham and looks at the role of the ASYNAPTIC4 protein during meiosis.


http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2018/PP/C8PP00138C#!divAbstract

Díaz-Ramos LA, O’Hara A, Kanagarajan S, Farkas D, Strid Å, Jenkins GI. Difference in the action spectra for UVR8 monomerisation and HY5 transcript accumulation in Arabidopsis (2018) Photochem Photobiol Sci. doi: 10.1039/c8pp00138c

Open Access

Aranzazu Díaz-Ramos and Andrew O’Hara are co-first authors on this research from the University of Glasgow that investigates the activation of photomorphogenic responses by the UVR8 photoreceptor. They show that two distinct UVR8 responses, either the monomerisation of UVR homodimers or accumulation of HY5 responsive transcripts, occurs at different wavelengths.


Hearn TJ, Marti MC, Abdul-Awal SM, Wimalasekera R, Stanton CR, Haydon MJ, Theodoulou FL, Hannah MA, Webb AA (2018) BIG regulates dynamic adjustment of circadian period in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology pp.00571.2018. doi: 10.1104/pp.18.00571

Open Access

Timothy Hearn works with Alex Webb at the University of Cambridge and in this paper characterises how the multi-functional BIG protein impacts the circadian clock. This gene was isolated in a forward genetics screen to identify signaling components that alter the response to nicotinamide, which acts as a brake on the circadian oscillator. This finding allows the authors to better understand how altering the circadian oscillator can affect appropriate phasing during different environmental conditions.


Kirschner S, Woodfield H, Prusko K, Koczor M, Gowik U, Hibberd JM, Westhoff P. Expression of SULTR2;2 in the Arabidopsis bundle sheath and vein cells is mediated by a positive regulator. J Exp Bot. 2018 Jul 19. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery263

Open Access

Sandra Kirschner is first author on this German-led study that includes Helen Woodfield (now Cardiff University) and Julian Hibberd (University of Cambridge). They are interested in the mechanisms that restrict gene expression to bundle sheath cells in C3 plants with a longer view of understanding the biology of these cells in C4 plants. They analyse the vascular-restricted SULTR2;2 promotor and identified a short region that is necessary for its expression pattern. Importantly they show that this sequence is evolutionarily conserved across Brassicaceae and a distantly related C4 plant.

https://academic.oup.com/jxb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jxb/ery263/5056055


Ebeed HT, Stevenson S, Cuming AC, Baker A. Conserved and differential transcriptional responses of peroxisome associated pathways to drought, dehydration and ABA. J Exp Bot. 2018 Jul 19. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery266

Open Access

Heba Ebeed is the lead author of this work conducted in Alison Baker’s lab at the University of Leeds. They take a comparative genomics approach to investigate the expression of peroxisome-localised genes in a moss (physcomitrella), monocot (wheat) and a dicot (arabidopsis). They show that members of three gene families are upregulated in each of these organisms following drought stress, demonstrating the importance of peroxisomes in this environmental response throughout plant evolution.


Chambon A, West A, Vezon D, Horlow C, De Muyt A, Chelysheva L, Ronceret A, Darbyshire AR, Osman K, Heckmann S, Franklin FCH, Grelon M (2018) Identification of ASYNAPTIC4, a component of the meiotic chromosome axis. Plant Physiol. pii: pp.01725.2017. doi: 10.1104/pp.17.01725

Chris Franklin and Alice Darbyshire from the University of Birmingham are co-authors on this French-led study that looks into the role of the ASYNAPTIC4 (ASY4) protein in the control of synapsis formation during meiosis. Plants without ASY4 activity have defective chromosomal axis formation and cannot undergo synapsis. Although the initiation of recombination is unaffected in asy4 mutants, later processes are altered, demonstrating the key role for ASY4 during meiosis

GARNet Research Roundup: May 17th

This weeks GARNet research roundup includes six excellent papers investigating many aspects of Arabidopsis cell biology. Firstly Eirini Kaiserli from Glasgow introduces a novel regulator of blue-light signaling. Second is a paper that analyses the circadian clock with single cell resolution and is led by James Locke (SLCU) and Anthony Hall (Earlham Institute). The next two papers investigate different aspects of hormone signaling, with Keith Lindsey’s group at Durham looking at the relationshop between the HYDRA protein and the auxin response whilst Ottoline Leysers group in Cambridge looks at the link between auxin and cytokinin during shoot growth. The fifth paper from Phillip Mullineaux (University of Essex) provides a genome-wide analysis into the role of HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b protein. The final paper from the lab of Piers Hemsley (James Hutton Institute, University of Dundee) should be of interest to many plant molecular biologists as they assess the functional significance of different epitope tags.


Perrella G, Davidson MLH, O’Donnell L, Nastase AM, Herzyk P, Breton G, Pruneda-Paz JL, Kay SA, Chory J, Kaiserli E (2018) ZINC-FINGER interactions mediate transcriptional regulation of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.. pii: 201718099. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1718099115

Open Access

Eirini Kaiserli (University of Glasgow) leads this study that identifies the ZINC-FINGER HOMEODOMAIN 10 (ZFHD10) as a novel regulator of light signaling. ZFHD10 physically interacts with TANDEM ZINC-FINGER PLUS3 (TZP) and these proteins coassociate at promotors that are blue-light regulated. These results reveal of novel mechanism of action for the key multiple signal integrator TZP in the light regulated growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

Eirini discusses this paper on the GARNet YouTube channel.


Gould PD, Domijan M, Greenwood M, Tokuda IT, Rees H, Kozma-Bognar L, Hall AJ, Locke JC (2018). Coordination of robust single cell rhythms in the Arabidopsis circadian clock via spatial waves of gene expression. Elife. 26;7. pii: e31700. doi: 10.7554/eLife.31700 Open Access

https://elifesciences.org/articles/31700

This paper is led by James Locke (SLCU) and Anthony Hall (Earlham) and investigates the circadian clock at single cell resolution. They use Arabidopsis plants grown in constant environmental conditions to show two desynchronised yet robust single cell oscillations that move both up and down the root. Their results indicate that the clock shows cell-to-cell coupling and they they modeled this relationship to recapitulate the observed waves of activity. Overall their results are suggestive of multiple coordination points for the Arabidopsis clock, which is different from the mammalian system of regulation.


http://dev.biologists.org/content/145/10/dev160572

Short E, Leighton M, Imriz G, Liu D, Cope-Selby N, Hetherington F, Smertenko A, Hussey PJ, Topping JF, Lindsey K (2018) Epidermal expression of a sterol biosynthesis gene regulates root growth by a non-cell autonomous mechanism in Arabidopsis. Development . pii: dev.160572. doi: 10.1242/dev.160572 Open Access

This collaboration between the research groups of Keith Lindsey and Patrick Hussey at the University of Durham investigates the role of the HYDRA1 (HYD1) sterol Δ8-Δ7 isomerase in epidermal patterning. This tissue shows highest HYD1 expression and hyd mutants have major root patterning defects. Tissue-specific expression of HYD1 indicates that it is involved with some type of non-cell autonomous signaling. Analysis of PIN1 and PIN2 protein expression suggests that auxin might be this functional signal


http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/early/2018/05/01/pp.17.01691.long

Waldie T, Leyser O (2018) Cytokinin targets auxin transport to promote shoot branching. Plant Physiol. 2018 May 1. pii: pp.01691.2017. doi: 10.1104/pp.17.01691.Open Access

This study from the lab of Ottoline Leyser (SLCU) investigates the integration between the plant hormones cytokinin and auxin. They investigate the role of cytokinin in shoot branching through analysis of Arabidopsis Response Regulators (ARRs) mutants. They show arr mutant phenotypes correlate with changes in stem auxin transport mediated by the PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7 efflux carriers, the expression of each respond to cytokinin signaling. Overall this study identifies a novel alternative pathway by which cytokinin impacts bud outgrowth through alterations in auxin transport.


Albihlal WS, Irabonosi O, Blein T, Persad R, Chernukhin I, Crespi M, Bechtold U, Mullineaux PM (2018) Arabidopsis Heat Shock Transcription FactorA1b regulates multiple developmental genes under benign and stress conditions. J Exp Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery142 Open Access

Phillip Mullineaux (University of Essex) leads this collaboration with French colleagues in a study that investigates the genome-wide targets of the HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b (HSFA1b) protein. Under non-stress ad heat-stress conditions they showed that 1000s of genes are differentially expressed with a smaller proportion of genes showing different levels of direct interaction. The indirect targets of HSFA1b are regulated through a network of 27 transcription factors and they also provide evidence for the role of hundreds of natural antisense non-coding RNA in the regulation of HSFA1b targets. Overall they show that HSFA1b is a key regulator of environmental cues to regulate both developmental genes and those involved in stress tolerance.


Hurst CH, Turnbull D, Myles SM, Leslie K, Keinath NF, Hemsley PA (2018) Variable effects of C-terminal tags on FLS2 function – not all epitope tags are created equal. Plant Physiol. doi: 10.1104/pp.17.01700 Open Access

This study from the Hemsley lab (James Hutton Institute, University of Dundee) is a cautionary tale on the use and interpretation of results obtained from experiments with commonly-used epitope tags. They assessed the activity of plants containing transgenic FLS2 proteins, which is a receptor-like kinase (RLKs) involved in the defence response. They show that various FLS2 C-terminal epitope fusions reveal highly variable and unpredictable outputs, indicating that the presence of different tags significantly alters protein function. This finding might require a reassessment of many experiments that rely on interpreting the function of epitope-tagged proteins and has significant for many if not all plant molecular biologists.

GARNet Research Roundup: April 27th

This weeks GARNet research roundup features four papers that include Malcolm Bennett (University of Nottingham) as an author. The first three are linked manuscripts that investigate the role of auxin on root hair development that is controlled by varying phosphate levels. Ranjan Swarup provides an audio summary of two of these papers on the GARNet YouTube and podcast feeds.

The fourth paper from Nottingham is a collaboration with GARNet PI Jim Murray (Cardiff University) that characterises the STM gene network and its influence on meristem development.

The fifth paper from the lab of Paul Dupree in Cambridge characterises the stem transcriptome whilst the next paper from Iain Johnston and George Bassel (University of Birmingham) identifies a bet-hedging network that influences seed germination. The final paper features Seth Davies (University of York) as a co-author and investigates the impact of changes in circadian rhythms on short architecture.


Researchers at the University of Nottingham are involved in three back-to-back papers that add a mechanistic framework to the relationship between phosphate and auxin signaling in root hairs.

Bhosale R, Giri J, Pandey BK, Giehl RFH, Hartmann A, Traini R, Truskina J, Leftley N, Hanlon M, Swarup K, Rashed A, Voß U, Alonso J, Stepanova A, Yun J, Ljung K, Brown KM, Lynch JP, Dolan L, Vernoux T, Bishopp A, Wells D, von Wirén N, Bennett MJ, Swarup R (2018) A mechanistic framework for auxin dependent Arabidopsis root hair elongation to low external phosphate. Nat Commun. 9(1):1409. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03851-3

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03851-3

Open Access

The first paper is led by Ranjan Swarup and defines components of auxin biosynthetic, transport and signaling pathways that are involved in the change root hair development in response to different phosphate concentrations in Arabidopsis. Ranjan discusses this paper on YouTube.

Giri J, Bhosale R, Huang G, Pandey BK, Parker H, Zappala S, Yang J, Dievart A, Bureau C, Ljung K, Price A, Rose T, Larrieu A, Mairhofer S, Sturrock CJ, White P, Dupuy L, Hawkesford M, Perin C, Liang W, Peret B, Hodgman CT, Lynch J, Wissuwa M, Zhang D, Pridmore T, Mooney SJ, Guiderdoni E, Swarup R, Bennett MJ (2018). Rice auxin influx carrier OsAUX1 facilitates root hair elongation in response to low external phosphate. Nat Commun. 9(1):1408. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03850-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-03850-4

Open Access

This paper led by Malcolm Bennett uses a rice model to investigate the relationship between auxin and root hair elongation in response to low concentrations of phosphate. They show rice aux1 mutants have significant changes in root architecture.

Dindas J, Scherzer S, Roelfsema MRG, von Meyer K, Müller HM, Al-Rasheid KAS, Palme K, Dietrich P, Becker D, Bennett MJ, Hedrich R (2018) AUX1-mediated root hair auxin influx governs SCF(TIR1/AFB)-type Ca(2+) signaling. Nat Commun. 9(1):1174. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03582-5

Open Access

The third paper includes Malcolm Bennett as a co-author and investigates how the auxin transport and signaling pathways stimulate calcium signaling during root hair elongation.


Scofield S, Murison A, Jones A, Fozard J, Aida M, Band LR, Bennett M, Murray JAH (2018) Coordination of meristem and boundary functions by transcription factors in the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS regulatory network. Development pii: dev.157081. doi: 10.1242/dev.157081

http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2018/04/12/dev.157081.long

Open Access
GARNet PI Jim Murray is the corresponding author on this manuscript that is led by Dr Simon Scofield and includes collaborators from the University of Nottingham. They have explored the gene regulatory network that is regulated by the key meristem identity gene SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). This network includes an over-representation of transcription factor families, each of which have distinct roles in meristem development. They use in planta experimentation and in silico modeling to investigate the relationship between STM and CUC1 in more detail. Overall this study confirms that STM is a central regulator of shoot meristem function.


Faria-Blanc N, Mortimer JC, Dupree P (2018) A Transcriptomic Analysis of Xylan Mutants Does Not Support the Existence of a Secondary Cell Wall Integrity System in Arabidopsis. Front Plant Sci. 9:384. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00384

Open Access

Paul Dupree (University of Cambridge) is the corresponding author of this study that uses a range of Arabidopsis cell wall mutants to investigate the stem transcriptome. In plants with defects in xylan synthesis the authors found surprisingly few transcriptional changes. This indicates that once plants have committed to a terminal secondary cell wall program there is little need for transcriptional changes even after cell wall damage.


Johnston IG, Bassel GW (2018) Identification of a bet-hedging network motif generating noise in hormone concentrations and germination propensity in Arabidopsis. J R Soc Interface. 15(141). pii: 20180042. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2018.0042.

Open Access
Iain Johnston (University of Birmingham) leads this study that has identified a bet-hedging network that links hormone signaling during Arabidopsis germination. This type of network allows plants to more easily adapt to varying environmental conditions but can preclude maximum growth. In this system the network is based upon the regulation of ABA synthesis, activity and degradation, which is maintained at a constant mean level even though it exhibits significant noise. They investigate the parameters that might be tweaked to reduce variation in germination rate and therefore might be targets for modification in order to maximise responses under particular environmental conditions.

George Bassel who is a co-author on this paper will be speaking at the GARNet2018 Meeting in York in September.

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/15/141/20180042.long


Rubin MJ, Brock MT, Baker RL, Wilcox S, Anderson K, Davis SJ, Weinig C (2018) Circadian rhythms are associated with shoot architecture in natural settings. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.15162.

Seth Davies (University of York) is a co-author on this study that assesses the effect of circadian rhythms on aerial phenotypes that lead to fruit production in field grown Arabidopsis. This was assessed over two growing seasons and they show that variation in clock function significantly impacts shoot architecture.

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